Varicose veins are a scourge of modern humanity. But often the treatment of varicose veins, whose scheme is selected individually, is successfully completed. Sometimes the matter is bypassed only by therapy and medication, but sometimes only surgery saves the situation. What are the ways to get rid of this nasty and serious illness?
Varicose veins - basic information
Varicose veins are a pathological condition characterized by damage to the venous vessels.
There are special valves in the veins that act as a kind of closure, preventing blood from flowing down (venous blood in the legs flows from the bottom up).
Failure of the valve system leads to reflux and blood clotting.As a result of these processes, the veins weaken, stretch and deform, unable to cope with rising blood pressure.
The result is a well-known symptom - bulging veins on the surface of the skin, which indicates the dynamic development of pathology.
All the insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in the initial stages it manifests as normal fatigue and heaviness in the legs.
Therefore, many are in no hurry to visit a doctor and start sounding the alarm when blue strands become visible on the skin, which spoils the appearance of the legs.
Learn more about the symptoms of an early varicose vein here.
The reasons for the development of this pathology are very diverse.They also include congenital abnormalities of the vascular system and some provocative factors: inactive lifestyle, overweight, uncomfortable shoes, professional activities associated with prolonged standing.
Treatment of the disease is always carried out in a comprehensive manner.The required scheme is selected by a specialist based on the stage of disease development and individual characteristics of the organism.
Which doctor treats veins?
Varicose veins are not only varicose veins, but also serious valve dysfunction and failure of blood circulation, leading to severe complications throughout the body. And if the first symptoms appear - swollen veins, muscle cramps, constant weight in the legs - you should immediately make an appointment with a phlebologist.
Based on the severity of the case, the cause of the illness and the medical condition, the doctor will choose the most appropriate course of treatment from the options available today.
The main reasons that lead to varicose veins are: heredity, overweight, inactive lifestyle, sedentary or standing work, hormonal imbalance in the body. According to statistics, 40% of adult women and 20% of men have signs of varicose veins.
A phlebologist diagnoses the disease, you should contact himif such symptoms occur:
- Weight in the legs that worsens towards the end of the day.
- Rapid leg fatigue during long walks.
- Leg pain.
- Occurrence of a fine vascular network on the legs.
- Swelling of the legs.
- Convulsions that increase in intensity at night.
- Itchy skin of the lower extremities.
atrophy of the muscle fibers of the superficial veinsgradually develops, the blood vessels lengthen, dilate, become tortuous, and nodules appear on them that protrude above the surface of the skin. The skin over the enlarged veins becomes bluish-red, dry and hot, ulcers are caused by malnutrition of the tissues.
Due to dystrophic changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, lipodermatosclerosis can develop - a dangerous complication of varicose veins in the legs, whose treatment with conservative methods can be unsuccessful.
To avoid the severe consequences of varicose veins, phlebologists advise their patientsto start treatment on timewhen the first signs of the disease appear.
Sclerosis is very effective, which consists in injecting a special sclerosing substance into vessels using a syringe with the finest needle. The venous lumens are tightened, the edges of the fissures soldered, thus stopping the infiltration of blood out of the veins. The substance itself, having fulfilled its function, is absorbed.
This method removes all stains and gives excellent cosmetic results. But after the procedure, it is necessary to maintain the condition of the veins with additional therapy and wear compression clothing.
Almost 10 years ago, laser, or endovenous laser coagulation, began to be used very successfully in medicine to combat varicose veins. Treat the veins as follows:
- Use local anesthesia to make a small injection into a vein.
- An optical fiber is inserted into the resulting hole.
- The laser acts on the damaged areas, closing the damage.
- Then a new fabric appears in the sealed place.
The operation is not performed "blindly" - the process is monitored using an ultrasound machine, so there is virtually no risk of failure. In addition, the absence of significant incisions excludes painful sensations, bleeding and violation of neighboring tissues.
After the procedure, you should bandage the affected areas or wear compression stockings and tights.
Radiofrequency ablation is often used, and high-frequency current successfully treats varicose veins. This happens as follows:
- A vein is pierced.
- A catheter is inserted into the hole.
- Radiation enters the vessel through it.
- The conductor acts at the molecular level, altering the protein molecules of the damaged vein.
The method allows you to quickly treat all venous nodes and does not require special postoperative therapy.
Methods for treating varicose veins
There are two: conservative and surgical. The patient is faced with an urgent question: how to treat varicose veins on the legs without surgery. When choosing a method, the doctor takes into account the signs, stage of the disease, the presence of complications, comorbidities, the age of the patient. Non-surgical methods of removing varicose veins of the lower extremities give good results only when the symptoms of the pathology are still weak.
Help stop degradation of affected blood vessels:
- drug therapy;
- compression treatment;
- physiotherapy exercises;
- recipes of traditional medicine;
Phlebologists for patients during pregnancy try to choose exclusively non-medical treatments of varicose veins of the lower extremities. First of all, these are compression underwear, gymnastic exercises, physiotherapy, massage, diet. If medications are still needed, only medications for external use are prescribed.
The debate continues over whether hirudotherapy helps with varicose veins. Hirudin produced by leeches, penetrating the venous system of the lower extremities, dilutes the thickened blood. However, today there are many modern drugs with the same property. In addition, there are risk factors for the use of leeches - vascular infection, allergic reactions.
If necessary, the treatment of varicose veins is carried out by radical methods. This:
- ozone therapy; cryotherapy;
- laser coagulation;
- surgical intervention.
Sclerotherapy - an injection into a diseased vein of a drug that "glues" an dilated vessel. It stops pumping blood and gradually dissolves. The maximum efficiency of sclerotherapy is achieved in the early phase of pathology. A similar method is ozone therapy: part of this gas is injected with a syringe into the lumen of small veins, and the vessels are also "glued".
Cold is used during the cryotherapy procedure. During electrocoagulation, high-frequency current is fed into the vessels through a very thin electrode. Laser treatment of varicose veins is also an effective modern method, especially when used in combination with conservative methods. At the same time, the cosmetic result is high: after a few weeks the patient has no scars or scars.
However, surgical removal is the most effective treatment that allows you to radically get rid of varicose veins when drug therapy does not lead to the desired result. Diseased vessels are removed by local subcutaneous incisions. After the operation, the leg is tightly wrapped, and after three to four hours the patient can walk.
Principles of treatment of varicose veins
Effective treatment of varicose veins is possible only if the selected drugs prevent the mechanisms of pathology development, destruction of vascular walls and valves.
The main tasks of treating varicose veins with medication are:
- restoration of blood circulation;
- strengthening of venous walls;
- increased vascular tone;
- decrease in blood viscosity;
- prevention of blood clots;
- normalization of the valve system;
- removal of inflammatory processes;
- normalization of blood circulation in capillaries.
Medications are essential in the complex treatment of disease.
They are also widely used for preventive purposes, which is especially important for people at risk of developing pathology.
To date, there are a large number of drugs for the treatment of varicose veins in the legs and they all differ in composition and mechanism of action.
See a doctor
Varicose veins are a serious disease, which if treated improperly or not, can endanger various complications dangerous to human health and life.
Help. Vital thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcer - this is not a complete list of complications of varicose veins that pose a threat to people.
In this regard, you should not even try to treat yourself.
Experiments at home with drug choices can either make the situation worse or be ineffective.
Anyway, this is a waste of time, health and money.
Therefore, you should contact a phlebologist. Only a specialist will be able to properly select medications and build a treatment regimen to achieve maximum benefit to the patient.
What medications are used
Complex treatment of varicose veins consists of using several groups of drugs at once:
Also,means of systemic and local influence are used to enhance the therapeutic effect.
Creams, gels, ointmentsare used as topical preparations. When choosing drugs for varicose veins and thrombophlebitis, it should be borne in mind that this meansin the form of ointment, which characterizes the highest content of active ingredient.
Important!A common contraindication to all topical medications is a violation of skin integrity.
As a rule, such drugs are applied several times a day, and the product should be rubbed with light movements from the bottom up.
Drug groups and their effect
In venous varicose veins, medicinal substances are classified according to the type of action intothree main groups:
- venotonic or phlebotropic agents; blood thinning agents (anticoagulants) and drugs that inhibit platelet adhesion (antiplatelet agents);
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
Research and medical practice have proven the effectiveness of phlebotonics developed on the basis of natural flavonoids- diosmin and hesperides. These substances not only protect the cells of the veins, but also stimulate the outflow of lymph and stabilize the work of the capillaries. Concomitant use of combination drugs in which both flavonoids are present is especially effective.
Phlebotropic agentsare usually taken for 2 to 3 months in courses. It is important that the reception coincides with the hot season, when the load on the vessel increases due to the high air temperature and the use of large amounts of water. If varicose veins are accompanied by chronic venous insufficiency, phlebotonics are constantly taken in half the dose.
A patient diagnosed with varicose veinsshould have systematic treatment from the beginningto prevent the development of the disease and reduce the likelihood of complications.
The second task is solved by drugs that dilute the blood (anticoagulants) and improve its flow, preventing the formation of thrombotic clots (antiplatelet agents).
The formation of blood clots, their separation from the vascular wall and movement along the venous bed leads to overlapping of the vessels of the heart, lungs and human brain. As a result, the likelihood of developing heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and ischemic stroke is very high.
Antiplatelets are not a cure for varicose veins, but are used as a means to prevent its serious complications- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We can say that these drugs save the patient's life and reduce the risk of disability to a minimum.
Removal of damaged veins of the lower extremities or their parts is done by incisions or stitches. Elimination of diseased vessels in the clinic is necessary if:
- The veins on the legs are pathologically enlarged;
- skin is affected;
- trophic ulcers appeared;
- thrombophlebitis worsened.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins on the legs is contraindicated:
- for severe hypertension, coronary artery disease, infectious diseases, eczema;
- if the patient has already reached old age;
- during pregnancy (over 5 months).
In addition to medical and surgical treatment, additional therapy is of great importance, including a number of measures to return the veins to normal:
- The wrap has a relaxing effect, removes the feeling of heaviness in the legs. When buying the necessary funds, it is worth remembering that hot compresses are contraindicated in varicose veins.
- Foot baths are another way to remove stress from your feet. By using herbs and oils, you can strengthen blood vessels, get rid of swelling and redness. But the effect will be only with daily use of the method.
- Contrasting shower. 10 seconds of cold casting and 30 seconds of warm (it is best to avoid hot water) for 5-7 minutes each morning will help keep the veins in good shape. You can use Alekseev or Charcot shower for this purpose.
Phlebologists often include physiotherapy in complex treatment - laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis.
They do not cause discomfort and pain, they are cheap and quite effective. In addition, the treatment takes place under the supervision of medical workers. The main condition is regular visits to the office.
Physiotherapy has a beneficial effect on the condition of venous walls, muscle tissue and valve activity.
Compression therapy is an important component not only of treatment, but also of prophylaxis and the postoperative period. Using a bandage will avoid stagnant processes, support damaged blood vessels and stop the progression of the disease.
Applying a bandage requires some knowledge and dexterity, as excessive pulling can lead to deterioration, and weak bending will not give the desired effect. Therefore, it is worth consulting a doctor for the correct use of the bandage.
Massage for varicose veins is not allowed in all cases, so only a doctor can tell if it is worth using in a particular case or not. If the method is chosen correctly, you can feel the result after the first session. This method can lead to improved blood microcirculation, alleviate the main symptoms of the disease, including external ones.
The more advanced the disease, the harder it is to fight it, and sometimes patients come too late, and then there is only one way out - phlebectomy. To prevent this from happening, one should not wait for complications, but get qualified help in a timely manner.
Phlebologists in the treatment of varicose veins strive to do without traumatic surgeries that are not needed in the early stages of the disease. For example, this is typical for reticular varicose veins, the manifestation of which is limited only by blue venous networks. Medications help to improve the condition of the valves and vessel walls. Men, like women, should wear compression stockings. The pathology cannot be completely cured. However, conservative methods stop the development of varicose veins and protect against complications.
Exercise specialists know how to remove leg veins by performing physiotherapy exercises. This is possible provided that exercise, which improves blood flow to the legs, is done systematically. For example:
- In the standing position, the heels are raised strongly alternately.
- In the same standing position, they slowly rise on their toes and descend just as slowly.
- Sitting on a chair, roll a small ball on the floor with your feet back and forth.
Wearing special underwear
Doctors recommend combining the treatment of varicose veins with wearing compression underwear - these are products made of a special type of knitwear that puts pressure (compression) on the veins. The degree of pressure of the bedding on the walls of the vessels can be regulated by purchasing products of different degrees of compression.
There are a total of four degrees of compression: the first is used for prophylaxis and the rest for treatment. For varicose veins of the lower extremities, tights, socks, leggings and leggings are worn, and the doctor selects the required degree of compression.
Compression underwear creates a thick frame for crushing on the legs, develops the following effects:
- Weakened leg muscles are supported.
- The walls of the blood vessels are constricted, preventing them from stretching.
- Stimulates lymph flow and blood circulation.
- Stagnation is removed.
- Venous valve function is normalized.
- The load on the varicose veins is reduced.
- Thrombophlebitis is prevented.
It is mandatory to wear compression stockings after varicose vein surgery. Underwear helps prevent the recurrence of the disease, creates additional support for the body during the rehabilitation period.
Compression sclerotherapy is a modern method of treating varicose veins, which consists of injecting drugs into the affected veins. As a result, sclerotherapy (adhesion) of the venous walls occurs, blood flow at the injection site stops, and the vein gradually dissolves or leaves a barely noticeable tuft that does not bother the patient at all.
Sclerotherapy is most often performed when spider veins appear, when the veins are in the initial phase. With the progressive development of varicose veins on the legs, sclerotherapy treatment is carried out after analysis of the condition of the venous valves and vascular walls, the functional characteristics of the patient's circulatory system.
If a decision is made about compression sclerotherapy, the patient undergoes a blood clotting test and an ultrasound examination of the veins. When performing sclerotherapy, the patient does not feel painful feelings, because the drug is injected into a vein using the thinnest needle. Upon completion of the procedure, a sterile bandage is applied to the area of application of the drug, and the patient wears compression clothing. For the first week after sclerotherapy, compression stockings must be worn day and night, and then they are allowed to be taken off at night.
Positive results of sclerotherapy:
- Restoration of efficient blood flow.
- Exclusion of blood clots in a damaged vein.
- Prevention of trophic disorders in tissues.
- Elimination of clinical symptoms of varicose veins: edema, seizures, pain.
- Excellent cosmetic effect due to the fact that swollen veins completely disappear.
For more effective treatment of varicose veins on the legs, it is important to organize the diet properly. Berries, apples, citrus fruits, which contain flavonoids, antioxidants, rutin, help to improve the condition of blood vessels. Dilution of blood ensures a daily intake of sufficient fluid (1, 5-2 liters). A diet with varicose veins on the legs is incompatible with fatty, fried foods, spicy spices, alcohol.
It is especially effective to treat varicose veins with folk remedies at home in the summer. The following recipes are popular:
- Tomato foot wraps for 15-20 minutes. It contains a high content of lycopene which actively strengthens blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots. At the same time it is useful to eat fresh tomatoes every day.
- Infusion of sweet clover, a plant necessary for varicose veins: Art. l. the raw materials are boiled with two cups of boiling water, stored until cooled and filtered. Drink half a glass 3 times a day, and the rest of the volume is used as lotions.
What not to do
When you are diagnosed with varicose veins, you need to pay attention to lifestyle, diet and sports.Not allowed:
- active physical activity, running, jumping (yoga classes are allowed);
- prolonged standing or extended sitting position;
- use of all medications without consulting a phlebologist;
- long flights with forced stationary leg position. In addition, at high altitudes there is a sudden thickening of the blood, which leads to the formation of blood clots;
- taking hot baths, visiting the sauna;
- Massage of glasses and honey is strictly forbidden, only manual medical massage is allowed.
Trophic ulceris a form of complication in varicose veins, which is manifested in the development and deepening of a long-term non-healing ulcer. A separate painful ulcer usually develops on the lower leg, within which a "leak" is often observed in the form of a discharge of serous bloody fluid covering the affected tissues.
Urgent medical attention is required if any of the following symptoms occur:
- Increased pain in the affected limb, inability to get out of bed or a few steps;
- The skin on the foot is hot, swollen and firm to the touch.
- Skin color changes from pale to bluish or bluish red;
- Sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sweating and severe weakness;
- Bleeding from affected skin or varicose veins.
Necessary medications for varicose veins of the lower extremities must be included in a complex treatment regimen.Even after surgery, several courses of phlebotonic and antiplatelet drugswill be needed to prevent possible trophic disorders, inflammation and complications associated with the disease.
Many multicomponent drugs against varicose veins work in combination, they have several functions. The effectiveness of such drugs is more pronounced.It is optimal to use treatment courses in the correct dose, calculated by a phlebologist, in combination with compression therapy, yoga classes, swimming in the pool, herbal medicines.
Complex treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities involves the use of various therapeutic methods.
In addition to medication, physiotherapy, special exercises, massage, etc. are prescribed.