From the article, you will learn which signs can indicate varicose veins of the lower extremities, causes of pathology, treatment and prevention at home.
WHAT IS VARICOSIS?
Varicose veins are a pathology of the veins, which is based on the malfunction of the vascular valve apparatus with the creation of venous insufficiency, dilation of the lumen, congestion, which is accompanied by constant pasty tissue.
MAIN CAUSES OF PATHOLOGY
Varicose veins on the legs have different causes and symptoms that have less gender characteristics.The main common trigger of pathology is called congenital connective tissue weakness.Hormonal changes are in second place, so women are more often diagnosed with varicose veins. Prolonged static position, sitting or standing, plays a role, the longer the legs the more serious the situation. Excess weight also provokes an increase in pressure in the veins of the lower extremities, as well as a lack of physical activity. Smoking, pregnancy, concomitant diseases, tight underwear, shoes, heels, everything that causes stagnation of blood circulation in the veins on the legs are risk factors for varicose veins.
SYMPTOMS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
The signs of varicose veins in women and men do not differ fundamentally. This is a stage disease, the symptoms of which are related to the stage in the development of the pathological process.
The first phase is characterized by minor clinical manifestations: the veins barely protrude above the surface of the skin, the dermis is slightly hyperemic, the weight in the legs begins to deteriorate, evening permeability of the legs, ankles, convulsions is possible. Such symptoms of varicose veins on the legs are especially painful from an aesthetic point of view. Pain is often preceded by visual signs.
In the second stage, the clinical picture takes on a typical appearance: the veins on the legs protrude visibly above the surface of the skin, palpate well and resemble nodules. If the pathological process progresses, the veins of the lower extremities take on winding shapes, bluish-purple in color, and sometimes turn black.
Symptoms of varicose veins on the legs of the third stage are characterized by the development of complications: trophic disorders appear, the skin resembles parchment, edema and cramps become frequent, the legs become covered with rash, begin to itch, join secondary flora, layers of pyoderma, dermatitis, eczema.
The fourth stage of varicose veins of the lower extremities is the most serious in terms of symptoms: the skin over the bulging veins becomes inflamed, nearby tissues are affected, trophic ulcers open, there are permanent pains in the legs with varicose veins, the addition of secondary infection causes thrombosis, thrombophitis, thrombophitis, complex treatment.
WHICH DOCTOR TO CONSULT?
A phlebologist deals with leg pain in varicose veins, but a vascular surgeon can also perform an initial appointment. It all depends on the severity of the pathology. A phlebologist prescribes conservative therapy or consults a vascular surgeon for a consultation to resolve a problem with surgery.
It is not possible to make an accurate diagnosis without a complete clinical and laboratory examination. Instrumental diagnostic methods help to clarify the stage of the pathology, the duration of the tests lasts 10 minutes, and at most half an hour. The doctor announces the result of the examination immediately, at the first meeting. The choice of adequate therapy depends on the stage of the pathology.
The therapy of varicose veins lies on "three pillars": drug treatment, minimally invasive techniques, operative classics.
In addition to the mandatory general recommendations for varicose veins: dosing, regular physical activity, minimization of static load on the legs, exercise, wearing compression stockings, use of elastic bandages - conservative therapy includes the appointment of phlebotonics based on flavonoids, chestnut extract. These are tableted systemic drugs: synthetic and based on natural ingredients.
Most often, oral administration is combined with the eponymous external therapy of varicose veins. According to doctors and patients, the combination of capsules and gels is the most effective.
Of course, one should not expect a complete cure from conservative methods, drugs are not able to restore varicose veins, but as a preventive measure, in preparation for surgery, the impossibility of surgical treatment of varicose veins - these drugs guarantee cessation of disease progressionand symptom relief.
The essence of minimally invasive therapy of varicose veins is the injection of a special sclerosing drug into a varicose vein. Through a syringe, the doctor injects a foamy solution into a vein, which fills a deformed vessel, convulsing it.
The patient is put on a compression stocking that is designed to keep the vessel in this condition. Within three days the vein walls stick together, the vessel is disconnected from normal blood flow and neglected. Wear compression stockings for at least a month, sometimes two. Criteria for treatment efficacy are created adhesions.
Compression sclerotherapy is performed if the varicose veins are not complicated by the reverse flow of blood from the deep blood vessels to the superficial ones through the communicating veins.If such a countercurrent is present, the efficiency of the procedure tends to zero.
Surgery - was and remains the most reliable and effective way to treat varicose veins, regardless of the presence of reverse blood flow in the veins. But here, too, it is important to consult a doctor in time, because relapses often occur at later stages. Varicose veins are operated with various techniques: microsurgery, radiofrequency and laser coagulation of deformed veins.
In the initial stages, photocoagulation or laser removal of spider veins is effective. In the later stages, phlebectomy is indicated - complete removal of the affected veins. The operation is traumatic, there is a risk of complications, so today doctors are trying to use the technique of less invasive miniphlebectomy. If the varicose veins are complicated by venous thrombosis, a secondary infection,crossectomy, is performed.
WHAT CAN YOU DO AT HOME WITH VARICOSE OF THE FEET?
The essence of the use of folk remedies for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins comes down to the removal of toxins and toxins from the body by restoring normal blood flow. To achieve this, they balance a diet, including cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, herbs, citrus fruits, apples, peaches, cherries, cherries, strawberries, gooseberries, currants in everyday meals. Be sure to calculate the correct meal: 40 ml per kilogram of weight.
In addition, they use the properties of green tomatoes that bind to the area of varicose veins in the form of compresses. The effect is guaranteed by lycopene - an antioxidant in fruit pulp, which improves the structure of the vascular wall, tones the veins. You can try the juice treatment: all vegetables that are eaten raw are suitable.
Garlic and lemon extract is effective: phytoncides dissolve cholesterol plaques, purify the lumen of blood vessels, a natural antibiotic, which is garlic, kills pathogenic flora, and vitamin C strengthens the vein wall, prevents salt deposition. The tincture is prepared simply: chop 4 unpeeled lemons, 4 large heads of garlic, put the mixture in a jar, fill it with boiled water, insist on the lid for three days, shake the bowl daily, filter, store in a cool place, drink a third of a glass during meals three times/ day. Course - drink 12 liters of the resulting solution.
Apple cider vinegar is popularly considered a source of minerals and vitamins; in varicose veins it is taken orally in the morning and in the evening by dissolving two teaspoons of the product in a glass of water. Externally: rub varicose veins with a tampon soaked in vinegar to relieve itching and pain.
Compresses are made with honey, placing a sterile napkin with the product on the area of varicose veins for several hours under the film. Use crushed cabbage leaves with vegetable oil over the bandage overnight. Course - month.
The prevention of varicose veins has two goals: to prevent the onset of the disease and to reduce the number of relapses. For this: you can't go to the sauna or take a hot bath, lift weights. A lot of exercise is recommended, excluding strength sports, control your weight and reduce the consumption of too spicy and fatty foods.
You don't need to wear tight clothes, socks, leggings, tight rubber socks, cross your legs while sitting. Women are encouraged to give up high heels.
At night - bathe in cold foot baths, in the morning you can soak your feet in cold water. It is necessary to abandon bad habits, master the point of self-massage: smoothing the skin of the lower extremities from the bottom up and in the opposite direction for 10 minutes, minimizing stress, avoiding overheating, colds, undergoing a medical examination.
In case of varicose veins, it is reasonable to visit the pool, walk, take a contrast shower at home and wear compression stockings all the time.